Additional amount of surplus from an additional amount of capital necessary to act as a supplement to the cash flow in the event unforeseen contingencies occur that disrupt or impair the cash flow necessary for the insurance company to make future benefit payments for which it has received the premiums. BENEFICIARY designation by the owner of a life insurance policy indicating to whom the proceeds are to be paid upon the insured's death or when an endowment matures. Anyone can be named a beneficiary (relative, non-relative, pet, charity, corporation, trustee, partnership). A primary beneficiary is the first-named beneficiary, who must survive the death of the insured in order to collect the proceeds. A contingent or secondary beneficiary will receive the proceeds if the primary beneficiary does not survive the insured. A revocable beneficiary (primary or secondary) can be changed by the policy owner at any time. An irrevocable beneficiary (primary or secondary) can be changed by the policy owner only with the written permission of that beneficiary. Naming an irrevocable beneficiary removes the policy from the estate of the insured, who thereby gives up incidences of ownership for estate tax purposes. If a beneficiary is convicted of murdering the insured, the beneficiary cannot collect the death benefit. The insured's estate would receive the benefit.