The definition of credit risk is at the core of lending. Banks lend money to businesses and individuals and expect to recover the principal and win interest. Banks offer a variety of loans, each designed for a particular group of borrowers from the market. On the one hand, people with good credit scores and high incomes and businesses with large sales figures will usually get low-interest loans - they are more likely to return the money and interest, so the credit risk is low. On the other hand, borrowers with bad credit scores and companies who are desperate for funding at all costs will receive high-interest loans because they will have difficulties in repaying their debt, which means that the credit risk is more significant. So, the banks can identify the quality of their borrowers from the amount of interest they are willing to pay. The credit risk refers to the probability for a lender to recover all his money and the interest from the borrower. From which the term name as credit risk. What is the risk of loss in case a borrower becomes unable to repay the loan? Obviously, this risk is greater for the borrowers willing to pay high interest rates since they are more likely to default.
An even shorter definition for credit risk would be banker’s biggest fear.
(1) Due to unforeseen circumstances, the borrower may lose the financial ability to repay the loan placing the collateralized property at risk of foreclosure.
(3) In the event of a depreciating asset, the loan value may exceed the value of the collateralized asset.
(4) In the event of the death of the borrower, payments on a loan will become a liability for the heirs.
A default generally occurs after 270 days in which a borrower hasn't made any payments. However, student loans are considered in default after 120 days of missed payments. Credit defaults are the materialization of the credit risk.